Radiopharmaceuticals Food supplements after radioactive contamination
It is known that iodine preparations must be taken in the first few hours after radioactive contamination. This is due to the fact that iodine is up to 90% of all radioactive ions absorbed by the body. Tell me, please, what other ions are included in the remaining 10%?
Current methods to remove radioactive contaminants from the body (decorporation) include:
1) Saturation of the target organ (eg, potassium iodide [KI] for iodine isotopes),
2) Chelation at the site of entry or in body fluids followed by rapid excretion (eg, calcium or zinc diethylenetriamine penta-acetate [DTPA] for americium, californium, plutonium, and yttrium),
3) Acceleration of the metabolic cycle of the radionuclide by isotope dilution (eg, water for hydrogen-3)
4) Precipitation of the radionuclide in the intestinal lumen followed by fecal excretion (eg, oral calcium or aluminum phosphate solutions for strontium-90),
5) Ion exchange in the gastrointestinal tract (eg, Prussian blue for cesium-137, rubidium-82, thallium-201).
Because a serious nuclear power reactor accident that releases fission products into the environment could expose large groups of people to radioiodine, decorporation using oral potassium iodide has been studied in great detail. Potassium iodide is > 95% effective when given at the optimal time (1 hour before exposure). However, effectiveness diminishes significantly over time (~80% effective at 2 hours after exposure and administration more than 24 hours after exposure will offer no protection). Potassium iodide can be given either in tablet form or as a supersaturated solution (dosage: adults and children > 68 kg, 130 mg; age 3 to 18 years [< 68 kg], 65 mg; age 1 to 36 months, 32 mg; age < 1 month, 16 mg). The compound is effective only for internal contamination with radioactive iodides and has no benefit in internal contamination with any other radioactive elements. Most other drugs used for decorporation are much less effective and reduce the dose to the patient only by 25 to 75%.
If radiation contamination is not caused by working in a chemical laboratory with radionuclides, but is a consequence of a radiation disaster, then other measures are needed. These are:
1) To exclude ingestion of radionuclides through the inhalation route of administration, you must use respiratory protection equipment, such as medical face masks. You need to close windows and doors, turn off ventilation and air conditioning.
2) To eliminate the ingestion of radionuclides through the oral route of administration, you should make a supply of water, put food in a plastic bag and close it in the refrigerator.
3) The second major radioactive ion (after I-131) is Cs-137. It is easily washed off with water, so if you have a risk of contamination, you should rinse your mouth, eyes, and wash the whole body with water. Take off your outer clothing, place it in a plastic bag, and bury it at least 50 cm deep. This is due to the fact that Cesium-137 has a half-life of 30 years, and these clothes can remain a source of radioactive contamination for a long time.
Thank you for the detailed answer, Aleksandr!